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The Senses Considered As Perceptual Systems Gibson Pdf Creator Extra Quality

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There is something of a paradox confounding intelligence and knowledge, for one thinks of knowledgeable people as being specially intelligent and yet more knowledge can reduce the intelligence needed for solving problems. The paradox is resolved, when we consider two senses of 'intelligence': active processing of information (as supposedly measured in IQ tests) and available answers (as in 'military intelligence') These senses of 'intelligence' have been named by rough analogy with creating and the storing of energy as, potential intelligence and kinetic intelligence (Gregory 1987). The notion is that stored-from-the-past potential intelligence of knowledge, is selected and applied to solve current perceptual problems by active processing of kinetic intelligence. The more available knowledge, the less processing is required; however, kinetic intelligence is needed for building useful knowledge, by learning through discovery and testing. (The analogy is imperfect because knowledge is not conserved. Nevertheless, these terms may be useful though, apart from secret knowledge, 'potential intelligence' is not diminished by use.) When almost complete answers are available, knowledge takes the dominating role. Then 'top-down' becomes more important than 'bottom-up', which may be so for human vision. (Remarkably, there are more downwards fibres from the cortex to the lateral geniculate bodies LGN) 'relay stations' than bottom-up from the eyes (Sillito 1995).) 1e1e36bf2d


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